The Recoletos School of Theology, located at 81 Alondras Street, Mira-Nila Homes, Congressional Avenue Extension, Quezon City, is the theological formative arm of Recoletos Formation Center. As a theological center it offers a rigorous ecclesiastical curriculum in Bachelor of Arts in Sacred Theology affiliated with the University of Santo Tomas (UST) and a civil degree of Master of Arts in Theology (MAT) recognized by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). It is owned and operated by the friars of the Order of Augustinian Recollects, Province of St. Ezekiel Moreno.

Both RFC and RST trace their beginnings from the early eighties following an increase in the number of Augustinian Recollect vocations in the Philippines. These, after finishing college degree and novitiate were sent to Marcilla, Spain for theological studies. The desire to form Augustinian Recollect religious and priests within the cultural context in which they would exercise their apostolate increased; and this lead to the erection of a theological house in the Philippines dedicated to the formation of Filipino Recollects. This was given a go signal by Most Rev. Javier Ruiz Pascual OAR the Augustinian Recollect Prior General. Initially, the theological seminary would be patterned after the experience of the Mother Province—the Province of San Nicolas de Tolentino.  The seminary, which was eventually named as Recoletos Formation Center, was solemnly blessed and inaugurated by Fr. Jose Antonio Calvo, OAR on December 5, 1985.  The first rector—Fr. Emeterio Buñao, OAR together with Fr. Hubert Decena, OAR as Dean of Studies and other members of the community--administered the formation program and theological training of future Recollect religious and priests.  The same seminary housed the Novitiate program from 1985-1987.

In 1985, due to insufficient number of professors, RFC entered into partnership with St. Vincent School of Theology an affiliate of Adamson University for the degree of Master of Arts in Theology. Two years after, in 1987, the school entered into a partnership with the Institute of Graduate Studies (IGS) of San Sebastian College Recoletos of Manila. In 1995, with the gradual increase of recollect and non-recollect theology professors, the seminary became an affiliate of the Royal and Pontifical University of Santo Tomas, Manila for the Bachelor of Arts degree in Sacred Theology program.  In 2001, the name Recoletos School of Theology (RST) became the official title of the academic department of RFC and by September 6, 2012, CHEd grants the recognition of RST theology program with majors in Systematic Theology and Church History.

Following the curriculum design of the Ecclesiastical Faculty of UST, to which RST is affiliated, RST shifted to a three-year curriculum program beginning school year 2011-2012 to achieve the Bachelor and Masters of Arts degrees in Theology. In May 2015, the school witnessed her first batch of graduates who underwent the three-year academic program. In 2014, the school also gained permission from CHED to admit students from other nationalities.

Today, RST is committed to be a comprehensive ecclesiastical and a civil institution of higher learning. The school continues to be the center for theological and religious formation of the Order of Augustinian Recollects of the Province of St. Ezekiel Moreno in the Philippines. The school is served by the Bulwagang Recoletos, a two-storey building, housing the St. Augustine Library, Audio Visual Room with 120 sitting capacity, Museo Recoleto, Archivo Recoleto, Conservation Laboratory and function halls. It also boasts of a pool of professors from different religious congregations and dioceses, added to its regular team of Recollect professors.